Lab 2  1A Hypertrophy implies the heart weight is increased reflecting an increased after load or pre
 LAB 2

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1A Hypertrophy implies the heart weight is increased reflecting an increased after load or pre-load.

1B Dilation of a chamber reflects an increase in size of the chamber usually due to increased pre-load or volume overload.

1C Left heart failure - shortness of breath. Right heart failure - organomegaly peripheral edema, increased JVP.

1D Alcohol, chemotherapy, radiation, valvular disease, arterial hypertension, congenital heart disease and many other causes.
3A Myocarditis.

3B Viruses, bacteria, parasites, autoimmune, drugs.
5A Left ventricular hypertrophy.

5B Aortic stenosis.

5C Diastolic dysfunction/poor relaxation; sometimes ischemia as ventricle outgrows its blood supply.
6A asymetrical Septal hypertrophy.

6C Poor left ventricular filling and possible left ventricle outflow obstruction.

6D Hypertension, amyloid, age-related changes, and aortic stenosis.

7A Poor filling.

7B Endocardial fibroelastosis.
8A Fibrinous pericarditis.

8B Viruses, trauma, radiation, myocardial infarct, chemotherapy, neoplasms, autoimmune, infection.

8C Pericardial effusion.
9A Caseous necrosis

9B Old inferior transmural left ventricular myocardial infarct.
10A Calcification of pericardium.

10B Constriction/poor filling of heart.

10C Constrictive pericarditis.
11A Metastatic tumour.

11B Fine needle aspiration/fluid cytology of the effusion fluid.
13A Hypertension, congenitally bicuspid aortic valve, trauma, connective tissue diseases.

13B Aortic valve regurgitation, outflow obstruction of the aorta, myocardial infarct, hemorrhage into pericardium or chest (tamponade or hemothorax).

13C An aneurysm is a localized dilatation of a vessel. Aortic dissections are not localized.

13D Echocardiography, CT scan, MRI.